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(A Review) “Let My People Go Surfing: The Education of a Reluctant Businessman” by Yvon Chouinard, Founder of Patagonia

crowbar-studios-let-my-people-go-surfingWith a title like “Let My People Go Surfing” you wouldn’t expect to find this book in the business section. However, as the saying goes … don’t judge a book by its cover. Dive in and you will find that the unique and common sense business philosophy of Yvon Chouinard, founder and owner of Patagonia, is anything but common.

In recent years, there has been a surge of companies from all business sectors that are discovering that embracing environmentally safe and sustainable business practices is not only good for the planet, but it can give them a competitive advantage and benefit their bottom line. In fact, it turns out that “going green” is saving companies hundreds of millions of dollars according to corporate leaders and a recent report released by the nonprofit, Environmental Defense Fund. However, this is not new news for Patagonia’s Chouinard, who has been walking the talk for several decades now.

Chouinard Equipment
Chouinard got his start as a mountain climber at age fourteen when he became a member of the Southern California Falconry Club, which trained hawks and falcons to hunt. Their leader taught them to rappel down cliffs to reach the falcon nests. The boys loved climbing and began to practice on the sandstone cliffs on the west end of the San Fernando Valley in California. From there, they set their sights on Tahquitz Rock in Palm Springs, and eventually Yosemite. At the time, climbers were using soft iron spikes, called pitons, which were driven into the mountain to secure their ropes. Unfortunately, the soft iron variety had to be left in the mountain, and often hundreds of pitons were required for each climb. Chouinard resolved to find a better way. After meeting Swiss climber, John Salathé, who made hard-iron pitons from Model A axles, Chouinard decided to start making his own reusable equipment. In 1957, he bought a used coal-fired forge and taught himself how to blacksmith. He made his first pitons from an old harvester blade and tested them on Lost Arrow Chimney and the North Face of Sentinel Rock in Yosemite.

He could forge two pitons an hour and charged $1.50 each. Soon, the word spread and friends were buying Chouinard’s steel pitons as fast as he could make them. He built a shop in his parent’s backyard, forging pitons during the winter and spending the rest of the year climbing. He sold his gear out of the back of his car to cover his expenses. Eventually, the demand overtook his supply and he had to start using more sophisticated machinery. He partnered with Tom Frost, a fellow climber and aeronautical engineer, and they refined their manufacturing process further and also sold their wares from a catalog.

Ironically, this business was to thrive and grow, despite his dim view of consumer culture. In “Let My People Go Surfing” Chouinard admits, “We took special pride in the fact that climbing rocks and icefalls had no economic value in society.” He and his fellow climbers were rebels who believed that “corporations were the source of all evil”. In the book, he explains, “The natural world was our home. Our heroes were Muir, Thoreau, and Emerson and the European climbers Gaston Rebuffat, Ricardo Cassin, and Herman Buhl. We were like the wild species living on the edge of an ecosystem – adaptable, resilient, and tough.” … all important attributes this “reluctant” businessman would later use to build a wildly successful retail empire, beginning with Chouinard Equipment, and later Patagonia.

By 1970, Chouinard Equipment had become the largest supplier of climbing gear in the United States. However, an unforeseen obstacle lay in their path. Their climbing equipment was beginning to chip away at the rock walls, leaving each climber with a less natural experience than the one before; and leaving the mountain permanently scarred in the process. This would be the first true test of Chouinard’s environmental resolve. Although pitons were the mainstay of their business, they eliminated them completely. As a replacement, they introduced aluminum chocks (wedges that can be inserted into cracks by hand rather than hammer). They included an editorial on the environmental hazards of pitons in their 1972 catalog and also added a 14-page essay by Sierra climber, Doug Robinson on the proper use of chocks, whose clarion call for clean climbing was met with enthusiasm by customers around the world. Almost immediately, the demand for pitons declined and they were selling chocks as fast as they could make them. They had taken a risk and customers responded to their authenticity with ever-increasing loyalty. They realized they were on to something.

Patagonia Clothing
Although Chouinard had been making corduroy knickers and double-seated shorts for years, his first true venture into the clothing business started with a rugby shirt that he bought on a winter hiking trip to Scotland. Constructed to withstand the rigorous game of rugby, it was perfect for climbing. The jersey was visually appealing with brightly colored stripes, and tough, with a collar that protected his neck from the climbing equipment. Back in the States, Chouinard wore it around fellow climbers and everybody wanted one. A new trend emerged. Soon they were also selling polyurethane rain ponchos and other outerwear suitable for climbing. 
They began to realize that clothing sales might be a way to support their marginally profitable hardware sales.

Patagonia Clothing was incorporated in 1979, and later became Patagonia, Inc. Named for the sparsely populated region at the southern end of South America that encompasses the southern section of the Andes Mountains; Chouinard felt this was a fitting label for his new company. He writes,

“To most people, especially then, Patagonia was a name like Timbuktu or Shangri-la — far-off, interesting, not quite on the map. Patagonia brings to mind, as we once wrote in a catalog introduction, ‘romantic visions of glaciers tumbling into fjords, jagged windswept peaks, gauchos and condors.’ Our intent was to make clothing for those rugged southern Andes/Cape Horn conditions. It’s been a good name for us and it can be pronounced in every language.”

The next decade proved to be pivotal for Patagonia. The company gained popularity, not only in the outdoor community but also with mainstream fashion consumers as well. Chouinard notes, “From the mid-1980’s to 1990, sales grew from twenty million to one hundred million dollars. Malinda (his wife) and I were not personally any wealthier because we kept the profits in the company. In many ways growth was exciting.” He adds, “We were surrounded by friends who could dress however they wanted. People ran or surfed at lunch or played volleyball in the sandpit at the back of the building. … We never had to make a break from the traditional corporate culture that makes businesses hidebound and inhibits creativity. For the most part, we simply made the effort to hold our own particular tradition.”

However, new challenges lay ahead for the free spirited Patagonians. At home and abroad, they were seeing the devastating effects that human activity was having on the wilderness they loved. They became increasingly aware of the efforts being made by small groups of individuals to save these areas. To make matters worse, the 1990-91 recession hit, and Patagonia’s sales fell far short of established goals. In 1991, the firm’s primary lender drastically reduced its credit line, resulting in a severe cash pinch. After first freezing hiring and nonessential travel, the company was forced to lay off 20% of its work force.

The Patagonia “Philosophies”
During this time period, Chouinard became increasingly uncomfortable with Patagonia’s direction and he searched for a business philosophy that would work for their company. Patagonia had grown beyond its original niche as an outdoor marketer and Chouinard was concerned that it no longer matched his personal values.

Chouinard and his wife began to rethink Patagonia’s direction. Seeking professional advice, they flew to Florida to meet with a business consultant. A naturalist at heart, Chouinard explained to the consultant that he was concerned about the fate of the environment and was using Patagonia primarily to make money to use for environmental causes. The consultant advised that if this was his true goal, he should sell the business, keep a little for himself, and set up a foundation with the rest. The consultant’s suggestion was unsettling to the Chouinard’s, who returned to California with more questions than answers.

Chouinard took a group of his top managers to Argentina for a “walkabout” in the real Patagonia. As they roamed the mountains, they asked themselves questions like – Why were they in business in the first place? And, what kind of company did they want to be? And, most important, what could they do to minimize the environmental harm they caused as a company? They concluded that the money the company was contributing to environmental causes barely made a dent in the world’s problems and that the greatest good they could do would be to develop Patagonia as an example for other companies to emulate. Their idea was that companies could educate consumers to become environmentally responsible and, in turn, consumers could influence government policy.

Upon their return, they formed a board of directors comprised of trusted friends and advisors, and one member, author and ecologist, Jerry Mander, put into words the values that would became the foundation for the Patagonia “philosophies” as they applied to every aspect of their business, including product design, production, distribution, image, financial, human resource, management and their environmental philosophy. All future endeavors would be guided by their mission statement, “Build the best product, cause no unnecessary harm, use business to inspire and implement solutions to the environmental crisis.”

“Build the Best Product, Cause No Unnecessary Harm”
Patagonia’s financial setback was a reality check that forced them to take stock of their operations across the board. Through the process of self-examination, they realized that if they were going to be part of the solution, they first needed to take responsibility for their own negative impact.

Chouinard vowed to examine everything Patagonia made, and resolved to do it all more responsibly. He even changed materials, switching in 1996 from conventional to organic cotton because it was less harmful to the environment – even though it initially tripled his supply costs. He created fleece jackets made entirely from recycled soda bottles. He vowed to create products durable enough and timeless enough that people could replace them less often, reducing waste.

“Use Business to Inspire and Implement Solutions to the Environmental Crisis”
No matter how well intentioned, Patagonia’s founder realized that everything they made created some waste and pollution. Therefore, he felt that the company had a responsibility to “pay for their sins until such a time that they hope they can stop sinning”. Patagonia had already begun pledging to give 2% of their profits (before taxes) to select non-profit environmental groups in the early 1980’s. As they became aware of more problems, they increased that amount until they had reached 10% by 1985. At that time, other companies had followed Patagonia’s lead and began similar programs, but this approach had many loopholes and ways for these companies to avoid giving. In 1996, Patagonia decided to increase the challenge by pledging 1% percent of their sales (not profits), whether they made money or not. This led to the creation of the 1% for the Planet initiative, an alliance of businesses pledging to donate at least 1% of sales toward active efforts to protect and restore our natural environment.

The “Let My People Go Surfing” Philosophy
Over the years, Chouinard has not only made waves in the marketplace, but his innovative human resources philosophies and management style have also overflowed into the workplace. The Patagonia employees who work in the offices, stores and distribution centers are paid fairly and receive good benefits. Many share the company’s values and are active in environmental and community causes.

Today, Patagonia is well known for its progressive work environment which includes generous health care, subsidized and on-site child care, flexible work schedules (yes, employees are encouraged to surf on company time when the waves are high at the local surf point – as long as deadlines are met) and paid time off for environmental internships. In fact, Patagonia supports environmental causes to the extent that they allow employees to leave their jobs for up to two months to work for an environmental group while still receiving a Patagonia paycheck and benefits. Furthermore, on the outside chance that an employee is arrested in an act of non-violent civil disobedience while supporting a cause, the company will even post bail under certain circumstances. Chouinard notes in his book,

“A certain void exists now with the decline of so many good institutions that used to guide our lives, such as social clubs, religions, athletic teams, neighborhoods, and nuclear families, all of which had a unifying effect. They gave us a sense of belonging to a group, working toward a common goal. People still need an ethical center, a sense of their role in society. A company can help fill this void if it shows its employees and its customers that it understands its own ethical responsibilities and then can help them respond to their own.”

Common Sense Conclusions
So what’s the bottom line? I believe the true bottom line of any business should be made in terms of common sense, as well as dollars and cents. As Chouinard notes, “There is no business to be done on a dead planet.” The continued viability of a business is unsustainable in the long-term if the resources it relies upon to stay in business are not managed responsibly … and that includes its human resources. And as every good surfer knows, balance is key. Companies should care about that more.

I hope you will consider reading this wonderful book. Chouinard’s philosophies and anecdotes will remain with you long after the last page is turned. His authenticity has inspired me to examine my own.

Thanks for reading.

Elizabeth

“A master in the art of living draws no sharp distinction between his work and his play; his labor and his leisure; his mind and his body; his education and his recreation. He hardly knows which is which. He simply pursues his own vision of excellence through whatever he is doing, and leaves others to determine whether he is working or playing. To himself, he always appears to be doing both.” -Francois Auguste Rene Chateaubriand

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School’s Out. Now What? Teach Green Summer Reading List for Kids

I am the mother of four children, three boys and a girl. I will always remember the sound of the school bus as it came to a stop outside our front door on the last day of class. I still associate its screeching brakes with the energy that was unleashed in my household the minute my exuberant kids raced through the back door, shedding book bags and uniforms as they ran. I learned early on that the best way to channel an over abundance of youthful enthusiasm (and preserve the sane existence I had come to appreciate during the school year) was to get them interested and involved in stimulating activities as quickly as possible.
The Farm House
So, it became a family tradition that as soon as everyone was finished with school, we would load up the Suburban and head to my parents farm in Southwestern Pennsylvania.  Here, they had 200 acres to explore, enjoy and… most importantly…expend all the excess energy that had accumulated over the past school year.  However, before we left, we always stopped at our local library and picked out books for summer reading. Often their choices involved interesting animals, far away places and the adventures of kids in nature. I can still see them sitting on the front porch of the farm, reading and then running to the woods or the creek in the pasture behind the barn to see what they could discover for themselves.

Sadly, my kids are all grown now, but they still go back to visit the farm whenever they can. Hopefully, one day when they have kids of their own, they will continue the family tradition. Until then, they have fond memories of the first week of summer break.

Just the other day, I heard the school bus drive by (no, I didn’t flinch), but it got me thinking … I stopped by the library that day and headed to the children’s section out of curiosity (and a bit of nostalgia), this time without my boisterous crew. I was pleased to discover many new titles along with some old favorites that I would like to pass along to those who still brace themselves for the summer surge of activity and are looking for inspiration to get their kids outside and active.

Here is what I found…

Can We Save the Tiger? by Martin Jenkins and illustrated by Vicky White (Candlewick Press, 2011) Age Range: 5-8 years
Written by conservationist Martin Jenkins, this non-fiction account of the challenges we face trying to protect endangered species is an excellent introduction to the subject. Beautifully illustrated and complete with interesting facts from the field, readers begin to understand the interconnections between species, habitats and the actions of humans.

City Green by DyAnne DiSalvo-Ryan (Morrow Junior Books, 1994) Age Range: 4-8 years
Marcy has big plans to clean up the empty lot across the street and grow a garden. Everyone in the community is pitching in … all except Old Man Hammer. But wait, why is he digging in the garden at night? Learn how green spaces in the middle of the city can bring hope and happiness to the people who live there.

EcoMazes: 12 Earth Adventures by Roxie Munro (Sterling Publishing Co. Inc., 2010) Age Range: 7 years and up
Did you know that we are all a part of an ecosystem? From polar ice caps to tropical rain forests and everywhere in between, EcoMazes is a fun and interesting way to explore Earth’s ecosystems and learn about the animals that live within them. Take a journey through twelve intricately crafted habitats and find over 350 animals hiding within the mazes. An answer key at the back of the book is loaded with interesting facts about each area.

Farewell to Shady Glade by Bill Peet (Houghton Mifflin Company, 1966) Age Range: 5-8 years
A half dozen rabbits, a pair of possums, a single skunk, five green frogs, one bullfrog, and an old raccoon leave town on the train to avoid the bulldozers that threaten their home. Beloved author, Bill Peet teaches an important lesson about the animals that live in and around our cities.

North: The Amazing Story of Arctic Migration by Nick Bowson and illustrated by Patrick Benson (Candlewick Press, 2011) Age Range: 7 years and up
Join millions of animals as they travel hundreds – even thousands – of miles to their summer breeding grounds in the arctic. Wildlife author Nick Bowson and award-winning illustrator Patrick Benson tell the story of the greatest journey on earth in a way that is easy to understand and visually compelling.

Owl Moon by Jane Yolen and illustrated by John Shoenherr (Philomel Books, 1987) Age Range: 3-8 years
As a father and daughter embark on an owling expedition into the woods at night, readers are reminded that the bonds between humans and nature often transcend words and can inspire great wonder – a timeless favorite of parents and teachers alike.

Secrets of the Garden by Kathleen Weidner Zoehfeld and illustrated by Priscilla LaMont (Random House Children’s Books, 2012) Age Range: 5-9 years
Alice’s family plants a vegetable garden each spring, and this budding naturalist reports all she sees about how the plants grow, what insects come to eat the plants, and what birds and animals come to eat the insects.  It’s the food chain, right in her backyard!  A fun way to learn about science – and perhaps inspire kids to eat their vegetables!

The Tree by Dana Lyons and illustrated by David Danioth (Illumination Arts Publishing Company, Inc., 2002) Age Range: 4 years and up
A powerful admonition about the fragile connections between all living things and the importance preserving nature. While camping in the Olympic Rain Forest, author Dana Lyons emerged from the woods with a fully formed song, The Tree, a message he believes came to him from an ancient Douglas fir tree.

Wangari’s Trees of Peace: A True Story from Africa by Jeanette Winter (Harcourt, Inc., 2008) Age Range: 4-8 years
A true story about Wangari Maathi of Kenya, who returns from school in America to find the trees in her village are gone and the land is barren. Learn how Wangari motivates an army of women to bring peace, prosperity and millions of green trees back to her homeland.

The Water Hole by Graeme Base (Puffin Books, 2004) Age Range: 5-8 years
The water hole is a gathering place for animals of all shapes and sizes. But wait! As more and more animals come to drink, the hole is getting smaller and smaller. Graeme Base has created a beautiful (and fun) depiction of wild animals from around the world in a clever counting story with a life-affirming theme.

Happy summer reading!

A final word of caution…Creating eco-friendly kids has a downside. After one year-end trip to the farm, I was unpacking suitcases and heard snickering from the front of the house. Fully aware of all the mischief that four fun-loving children can create, I wisely stopped what I was doing and went to investigate. Sure enough, there was an open glass jar on my pink marble floor. The lid was nowhere to be found (more snickering). And then, much to my dismay, something jumped out at me! I uttered words no mother ever wants to hear herself say…

“You kids get in here right now and get these grasshoppers out of the foyer!”

ElizabethSarah & Bailey on a recent visit to the fa

 

Note – All of the above-mentioned titles were available at our local library and are also sold online at amazon.com.


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A Primer for Environmental Education

Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder, by Richard Louv (Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books, 2005)

In researching the benefits of grade school environmental education for the new children’s entertainment series we are working on, I ran across an excellent resource entitled Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder by Richard Louv. This is an important book and I’d like to give you a brief overview of Louv’s innovative thinking on how humanity’s relationship with nature can be improved by helping our kids to build meaningful relationships with the outdoors.

Nature Deficit Disorder Defined

Last Child in the Woods contends that children need exposure to nature to ensure the healthy development of body and mind. Trends in society such as the loss of easy access to natural areas, fear of perceived dangers in unstructured play, and community restrictions, combined with increased attachment to indoor activities such as television, computers and video games, have led to a separation of children from nature that is having detrimental effects on kids’ physical, emotional and cognitive development.

Richard Louv coined the phrase, Nature Deficit Disorder, to describe the phenomenon. Although he admits that it is not a medical diagnosis, Louv defines the disorder as “the human costs of alienation from nature, among them: diminished use of the senses, attention difficulties, and higher rates of physical and emotional illnesses.” Louv offers plenty of studies and anecdotal evidence collected over a 10-year period to support his theory. He writes,

“Nature inspires creativity in a child by demanding visualization and the full use of the senses. Given a chance, a child will bring the confusion of the world to the woods, wash it in the creek, turn it over to see what lives on the other unseen side of that confusion.”

Louv divides the book into seven sections and walks us through the evolution of the problem, why it matters and how we can get kids back to nature in order to ensure their physical and mental health. All the while, he weaves in personal recollections from his own childhood, which had me reminiscing about my own.

How Did We Get Here?

Humans are a curious lot. We are always pushing the boundaries of what is known, to discover what is possible. Attachment to the land has historically held special appeal for Americans, starting with what Louv calls the “first frontier”, where the availability of free land encouraged the advancement of citizenry westward that not only created our country and the boundaries of the land that it encompasses, but also defined the venturesome spirit of the people who claimed it as their own.

Once the boundaries were set, a “second frontier” emerged that was more a movement of priorities and values, than physical motion. In rural areas, the farm defined our connection to the land and created family legacies that have lasted for generations. In urban areas, land was set aside for public parks to ensure easy access for city residents. This era also romanticized nature and saw the creation of national parks that preserved the most unique and beautiful natural areas of the country for all people to explore and enjoy.

Currently, a “third frontier” is emerging in American culture. Unfortunately, our cultural values are shifting away from a personal connection with natural places to a more intellectualized relationship. Louv defines the events that are shaping the current trends as follows:

“Not yet fully formed or explored, this new frontier is characterized by at least five trends: a severance of the public and private mind from our food’s origins; a disappearing line between machines, humans, and other animals; an increasingly intellectual understanding of our relationship with other animals; the invasion of our cities by wild animals (even as urban-suburban designers replace wildness with synthetic nature); and the rise of a new kind of suburban form.”

This new era is also typified by the reduction of primary experiences…that which we can perceive through our senses of sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell. Unstructured play in the natural world is being replaced by passive experiences delivered through an ever-increasing selection of media. This shift matters more than we realize. Louv quotes Robin Moore, a professor at North Carolina State University who directs a research and design program that advocates nature play in the daily lives of children. She states,

“Children live through their senses. Sensory experiences link the child’s exterior world with their interior, hidden, affective world. Since the natural environment is the principal source of sensory stimulation, freedom to explore and play with the outdoor environment through the senses in their own space and time is essential for healthy development of an interior life… This type of self-activated, autonomous interaction is what we call free play. Individual children test themselves by interacting with their environment, activating their potential and reconstructing human culture. The content of the environment is a critical factor in this process. A rich, open environment will continuously present alternative choices for creative engagement. A rigid, bland environment will limit healthy growth and development of the individual or the group.”

Louv adds that our children are being contained in smaller and smaller spaces and live tightly structured lives. Car seats, strollers, even the interior of the family SUV is becoming one of the standard “containers” in which children are exposed to nature. And yet, they need to explore nature and utilize all of their senses…not just sight…to make sense of the world around them and eventually their place in it. They need to stretch their legs (and their minds) or risk becoming depersonalized and detached from real life. Even school recess has been reduced or eliminated due to time constraints, curricular demands and liability concerns. Louv writes, “the detachment of education from the physical world not only coincided with the dramatic rise in life-threatening childhood obesity, but also with a growing body of evidence that links physical exercise and experience in nature to mental acuity and concentration.”

Why Don’t Kids Play Outside Anymore?

I find it paradoxical that parents who experienced such freedom in their own childhood would keep their own children so tightly controlled. However, closer examination reveals structural, cultural and societal changes that have significantly altered how children spend their free time. These changes play a direct role in separating them from nature and limiting the time and space available for them to engage in unstructured play. Louv explains these changes as follows:

Structural Changes to the Family Unit

Today, more families have both parents working outside the home than in any other time in the history of our nation. Daycare and after school care have become a necessity for many families. With so much time spent away from their children each day, parents feel compelled to make the most of the remaining hours by filling it with what they believe to be meaningful and results-driven activities. While music lessons, team practices and service obligations are all valuable childhood experiences, they leave little time for much else.

Cultural Changes

In addition, families are surrounded by a culture of media. Many times, when children do have time between the classroom, after school activities and bedtime, they often fill it with television, computer activities and video games. Parents aren’t immune to the lure of media either. Passive activities in front of a video screen take away from time spent outside experiencing nature. Also, modern networks of communication connect parents with other parents, enabling them to compare parenting styles, thus raising expectations of their own children’s achievement and involvement in extracurricular activities.

Societal Changes

Increased communication has also led parents to believe the world is a more dangerous place than it once was. This contagion of fearfulness has been a significant factor in an increase in parents’ control of their children’s outdoor activities. Twenty-four hour news cycles and TV crime shows have created a phobia of “stranger danger,” and also a fear of crime, traffic hazards and peer-related phenomena such as bullying and drugs. The obvious consequence for parents of young children obsessed with stranger danger is to either keep kids safe at home or make sure they’re in highly structured situations.

Institutional Changes

The boundaries of childhood are shrinking. Rural living has lost its appeal and in urban settings people have inevitably become more and more removed from the natural world. Even in the suburbs, over the past few decades, populations have trended toward highly planned developments. Consequently, the natural world can be off-limits or hard to reach. Planned neighborhoods with manicured green spaces have strict rules of conduct to reduce liability and the destruction of property. Playgrounds, parks and wild spaces can be miles away and parents are much more willing to drive kids to a soccer game or a music lesson than to an unstructured and unsupervised romp in a park. If we can’t send them out the backdoor to play, how can we restore this vital connection?

“The Nature-Child Reunion”

What Louv suggests is not only the evolution of the nature-child relationship, but also the parent-child relationship as well. Louv suggests that parents simply spend time with their kids in nature. Though they may not be able to recreate their own childhood memories of nature play, they should come to understand that their children can indeed readily connect with nature in a meaningful way. And, most parents will benefit from this connection too. He recommends allowing kids to explore wild places with controlled risk, “almost out of earshot, but never out of sight.” While this may not be the dawn to dusk adventures of past generations, it will provide kids with firsthand experiences, partial solitude and valuable exposure to the natural world.

Today’s parents are becoming better educated and informed through a wide variety of media sources. Louv believes that if the back-to-nature movement is marketed as an integral part of a child’s education and a valuable resource for mental health, appreciation of nature will make a comeback. However, Louv cautions that it won’t happen automatically, but will require the help of environmentalists, teachers and community organizers to make it happen.

Environmental Education

Nature-based environments are not only known to facilitate psychological healing, but also have been found to aid learning across a wide range of curricula. Louv cites many studies that outdoor learning experiences increase mastery in science, social studies, language arts and math. Gains were also realized on standardized tests and overall grade point averages. He adds that students in nature-based programs also had better attendance and behavior than in traditional classrooms. One such study submitted to the California Department of Education found a “27 percent increase in measured mastery of science concepts; enhanced cooperation and conflict resolution skills; gains in self-esteem, problem solving, motivation to learn, and classroom behavior.”

Slowly, some innovative teachers with the support of eco friendly parents and open-minded school systems are realizing the benefits of hands-on education that makes learning “immediate and personal”. Schools are beginning to utilize the school grounds as an extension of their classrooms. Two studies conducted in Canada, “Gaining Ground” and “Grounds for Action”, found:

“Children who experience school grounds with diverse natural settings are more physically active, more aware of nutrition, more civil to one another, and more creative. The greening of school grounds resulted in increased involvement by adults and members of the nearby community.”

In order to minimize the financial impact of these new programs, schools are also partnering with environmental organizations and local wildlife preserves. Louv believes that this is a win-win proposition for both the local schools and also the preservation efforts of affiliated associations.

The “Fourth Frontier”

Richard Louv’s “fourth frontier” calls for us to reexamine our values and priorities of urban planning to make room for the restorative cycles of nature within our communities. He also calls for changes to the laws that govern landowners, parks and other public lands to decriminalize natural play in these areas. He writes:

“As long as cities continue to overdevelop housing tracts and underdeveloped parks and other sites for natural play, our regional parks and beaches will be crushed by demand, necessitating ever more stringent enforcement.”

He offers many suggestions for humans and animals to coexist in urban areas and ways to restore nature not only for our children’s sake, but for nature’s sake as well. He envisions entire cities transformed into natural habitats in order to satisfy our need for biophilia, a human’s innate desire to connect with other forms of life. Louv cites many examples of green urbanism that have been adopted in European cities and imagines American cites similarly transformed through thoughtful planning, innovative design and the ecological education of its citizens. He writes:

“Preserving islands of wild land – parks and preserves – in urban areas is not enough, according to current ecological theory. Instead, a healthy urban environment requires natural corridors for movement and genetic diversity. One can imagine such theory applied to entire urban regions, with natural corridors for wildlife extending deep into urban territory and the urban psyche, creating an entirely different environment in which children would grow up and adults could grow old – where the nature deficit is replaced by natural abundance.”

A Personal Connection

Ultimately, Richard Louv believes that nature is a “spiritual necessity” for healthy childhood development. He makes a convincing argument for “faith-based environmentalism”, citing a strong connection between nature and religion that spans the doctrines that divide us. He quotes Paul Gorman, founder and director of the National Religious Partnership for the Environment, who believes that:

“The purpose of creation really is to bring us – children and all of us – closer to the creator. As a parent, you don’t encourage children to experience nature because it’s pretty, but because your children are exposed to something larger and longer standing than their immediate human existence.”

Louv looks to a future where appreciation of nature is firmly rooted in our daily lives, our education programs and our value system as a society. He advocates that we encourage our children to develop a connection with nature that is active, personal and ongoing. He believes that this will produce greater appreciation, even reverence, for the natural world that transcends current environmentalism, and will create future generations that are healthier, happier and have an increased sense of commitment to preserving and sustaining our awe-inspiring planet.

I highly recommend Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder. It is the bible of the back-to-nature movement and validation of my personal beliefs about the importance of nature in childhood, both from my own personal adventures as a child, and also my experiences raising four children in a completely new era.